Balance Sheet Accounting Terms


Small business owners should be familiar with their balance sheet in regards to how solvent the company is. There are a list of terms that help in understanding the balance sheet:

Assets- Can be current (used within a year) or fixed (benefits last longer than a year. Examples of current are: Cash and Accounts Receivable. Examples of fixed are building and machinery.
Cash- Consists of currency/coins on hand, checks from customers, balance in bank accounts.
Accounts Receivable-The amount of money owed to the business by your customers after goods and/or services have been provided.
Inventory-An asset of the company, value of products waiting to be sold.

Liabilities-Can be current (debts payable within a year) and long-term (debts payable over a period of time greater than a year)
Accounts Payable-The amount of money you owe creditors in return for goods and/or services delivered. Usually paid on terms of 30, 45 or 60 days. This is a current liability.
Loan Payable- An example of a long term liability, bank loan payable over a period of greater than a year.

Current Year Income (Loss)- A company’s total earnings in the current year.
Retained Earnings-Earnings that are reinvested in the company and not paid out as dividends.